Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)

EVALUATION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND ONION (Allium cepa) EXTRACTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF FALL ARMYWORM (Spodoptera frugiperda) ON BABY CORN (Zea mays L) UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

gws.02.2020.45.50

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND ONION (Allium cepa) EXTRACTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF FALL ARMYWORM (Spodoptera frugiperda) ON BABY CORN (Zea mays L) UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Munyore, M., Rioba, N. B.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.45.50

The effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa extracts on the Fall Armyworm and growth of Babycorn (Variety SG 18) under greenhouse conditions were evaluated. Treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The factors included solvents used: Dichroloromethane (DCM), Methanol (Me), Distilled water (Di) and type of plant used: Allium sativum and Allium cepa. The positive and negative controls were Coragen SC 200 (Co) and distilled water (Di), respectively. Data collection and analysis was done using appropriate procedures. The extraction yield was highest with Methanol for A cepa and distilled water for A sativum, while DCM yielded the least for both plants. Saponins, glycosides, alkaloid and tannins were present in all the plant species, but their presence was influenced by the solvent type. Flavoniods were only present in DCM-A sativum extract whose content was 5.2378 ± 0.1094 mg/mL. DCM and Methanolic extracts of A cepa and A sativum were as effective as Coragen SC 200 against FAW larvae as opposed to distilled water extract. No significant differences were noted for plant height and leaf numbers. Further evaluation should be done towards making commercially available and effective insecticide for integrated FAW management.

Pages 45-50
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.40.44

ABSTRACT

LAND USE CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING USING LANDSAT IMAGERY FOR GIS DATABASE IN LANGKAWI ISLAND

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Zuhairi, A., Nur Syahira Azlyn, A., Nur Suhaila, M. R., Mohd Zaini, M.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.40.44

This study examined the land use changes in Langkawi Island for over 12 years. Land use maps were derived by analysing temporally available satellite imageries of that area. Subsequent Landsat imageries of the years 2006, 2014 and 2018 were processed in Environment for Visualising Images (ENVI) software using Normalize Differences Built-Up Index (NDBI) and supervised classification. The land use classes obtained were categorised according to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) land use classification namely URLD, URMD, URHD, FRSE, UINS, UIDU, URTN, RICE, AGRR, and WATR. The analysis of the land use maps provides a comparison for the area of land use class around Langkawi Island based on the Rancangan Kawasan Khas 2020 (RKK). This study will give an overview of the stakeholder on the current land use of Langkawi Island for future land use planning. Moreover, the land use map generated in this study can be used as a functional land use input for the SWAT model and provide a temporal Geographic Information System (GIS) database on the land use of the Langkawi Island.

Pages 40-44
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.37.39

ABSTRACT

A PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF Ficus L. SPECIES IN KUANTAN, PAHANG

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Badrol Azim Moulana, Rozilawati Shahari, Che Nurul Aini Che Amri, Muhd Syufihuddin Shamsuddin, Nik Nadira Nazua Nik Rusmadi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.37.39

Ficus is the largest genus in the Moraceae family, with more than 700 species worldwide. It was classified into a distinct genus based on the unique nature of its inflorescence. Until recently, there was no official record of the Ficus checklist in Kuantan, Pahang. Therefore, this study aims to develop the preliminary checklist of Ficus species in Kuantan Pahang. Plant samples were collected from selected areas of Kuantan. Plant samples were pressed, dried and mounted on a herbarium board and processed as specimen vouchers. Based on this study, 14 species of Ficus were recorded. The list of Ficus presented in this study could be used for future research and as a reference source for conservation activities.

Pages 37-39
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.32.36

ABSTRACT

BROADCAST SPAWNING PATTERN AND PELAGIC LARVAE DURATION OF ACROPORA CYTHEREA AND A. CLATHRATA FROM INSHORE REEF AREA IN KUANTAN COASTAL REGION

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Muhammad Faiz Mohd Hanapiah, Shahbudin Saad, Zuhairi Ahmad, Muhammad Hamizan Yusof, Mohd Fikri Akmal Khodzori, Muhammad Khairulanwar Rosli

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.32.36

Acropora sp. is the second-most abundant among the coral genera in the Kuantan coastal region (KCR) located on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This study investigated the timing of coral spawning of two Acropora species; Acropora cytherea and Acropora clathrata through dissection and histological analyses of coral fragments that were collected during predicted spawning months (March until May 2018) from Balok reef, Kuantan. Histological results showed the presence of mature oocytes from a sample collected in April and May 2018, which indicate an extended gamete release pattern for these species within KCR. The gamete maturity coincided with the peak sea surface temperature within KCR from April until May. Both Acropora species spawned between 10-11 nights after the full moon. Present results also indicated that both Acropora species have optimal pelagic larvae duration (PLD) between 6 – 8 days after spawning. This study contributed to the limited knowledge of coral reproductive biology on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, the timing of coral spawning provides valuable data for population connectivity modelling.

Pages 32-36
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.27.31

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF VERMICULITE APPLICATION RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BRASSICA NAPUS (RAPE)

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Pisa C, Parwada C, Chiripanyanga S, Dunjana N

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.27.31

Production of leaf vegetables requires intensive soil nutrients management. A 3-year field experiment was carried out to assess effects of vermiculite application rates on the growth and yield of Brassica napus. The experiment was conducted during the 2016/17, 2017/18 and 2018/19 summer seasons at the Marondera University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (MUAST) farm, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Vermiculite was applied at five levels of 0 (control), 1, 2, 5 and 10 t ha-1 in a completely randomised block design (RCBD) with 3 replicates. Basal and top-dressing fertilizers were applied using the recommended rates in the study area. The B. napus leaf width, leaf length, fresh and dry matter yield, leaf nutrient concentration and N and P uptake were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p = 0.05 was done to compare the effects of vermiculite application rates on growth and yield of B. napus. Growth parameters and yield of B. napus significantly (P <0.05) differed among the five levels of vermiculite. Application rates of 5 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 improved leaf width and length, fresh and dry matter yield of B. napus. Farmers may therefore apply 5 -10 t ha-1 of vermiculite in order to increase rape leaf yields. However, there is need for further researches to determine the optimum application rates of vermiculite are essential.

Pages 27-31
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.01.2020.24.26

ABSTRACT

TAXONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ANTICLINAL WALLS AND STOMATA PATTERNING IN SOME MELASTOMA L. SPECIES FROM FRASER HILL

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Siti-Maisarah, Z., Nurul-Aini, C.A.C., Rozilawati, S., Noor-Syaheera, M. Y.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.24.26

The epidermal characteristics of five selected Melastoma L. species in Fraser Hill, Pahang that belongs to Melastomataceae family had been investigated. These five species namely M. muticum Ridl., M. decemfidum Roxb., M. perakense Ridl., M. sanguineum x malabathricum and M. malabathricum var. normale. The objective of this study is to determine whether epidermal characteristics in Melastoma could be taxonomic value in systematic and diagnostic investigations. Methods of the investigation involved epidermal peel and scanning electron microscopy. Results obtained revealed that the presence of hypostomatic stomata and guard cells pairs were elliptic in shaped for all species studied. Apart, the pattern of anticlinal walls on adaxial and abaxial surfaces was straight to wavy for all species studied except for wavy to sinuous anticlinal walls on abaxial surface of M. sanguineum x malabathricum. Furthermore, two types of stomata were observed among species studied such as anomocytic and diacytic stomata. Results showed that diacytic type was only present in M. sanguineum x malabathricum therefore could be a criterion to diagnose the species. Lastly, this present study was also reported on the presence of two types of guard cell pairs such as raised or slightly raised and sunken guard cell pairs. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the anticlinal walls and stomata patterning possess as taxonomic importance in identification and classification of Melastoma either at genus or species level.

Pages 24-26
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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gws.01.2020.19.23

ABSTRACT

MITIGATION OF ALEXANDRIUM TAMIYAVANICHII USING ACTIVE FRACTIONS FROM ETHANOL EXTRACT OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT, SANSEVIERIA TRIFASCIATA

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Normawaty Mohammd-Noor, Ima Amirah Mohd Suberi, Deny Susanti, Yukinori Mukai, Anwar Iqbal, Aimimuliani Adam

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.19.23

Blooms of toxic Alexandrium tamiyavnichii have been recorded in several parts of the world including Malaysia. This Harmful algal bloom (HAB) has led to human illness and loss to fishery industries. In order to control the bloom and minimize the effects, the growth of the species needs to be inhibited using a mitigation agent, preferably environment friendly agent. In this study, an ornamental plant, Sansevieria trifasciata will be used to inhibit the growth of A. tamiyavanichii. The plants were fractionated to obtain fractions (dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol) from ethanol fresh and dried plants extracts. Eight concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/mL) of these fractions were tested on the algae for 24 hours and removal efficiencies (RE) were determined. Toxicity test was conducted on Artemia using 10, 50, 100 and 500 mg/mL concentrations of active fractions for 24 hours. Phytochemical compounds were detected using standard procedures. Results obtained showed that the growth of A. tamiyavanichii was inhibited by all concentration tested. Active fractions from DCM using both fresh and dried plants showed good results with more that 80% RE values at 5 mg/mL within 2.5 to 5 hours. During the experiments, DCM used did not change the pH of the culture medium compared to methanol fraction. For phytochemical screening tests, compounds detected in all fractions were alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, reducing sugars and terpenoids. These compounds might cause the inhibition of targeted algae, however further study is needed to determine the bioactivity and its specific effect on HAB species. To conclude, fractions of DCM from fresh and dried S. trifasciata have the potential in the mitigation of A. tamiyavanichii. This could help to minimize the impact of this species on human health and reduce the loss to fishery industries.

Pages 19-23
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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gws.01.2020.13.18

ABSTRACT

DISPERSAL PATTERN OF CORAL LARVAE IN KUANTAN COASTAL WATERS, MALAYSIA

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Muhammad Faiz Mohd Hanapiah, Shahbudin Saad, Zuhairi Ahmad

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.13.18

Understanding source and sink pattern of coral larvae is among the key elements for effective ecosystem management and future habitat restoration. This study examined dispersal pattern of coral larvae among three known inshore reefs (Pulau Ular, Balok Reef and Raja Muda reef) in Kuantan coastal waters by simulating virtual larvae trajectories during spawning event in 2018. Dispersal pathways were modelled and constructed by incorporating biological traits (timing of spawning and pelagic larvae duration) using Langragian particle tracking module integrated with 2-dimensional, hydrodynamic, flexible network model (MIKE 21 FM). Results indicated that Acroporid larvae moved in southward direction throughout dispersal period. Source and sink dynamic suggested that Pulau Ular has high larvae retention (70%) in which most of larvae originated from natal reef. Balok reef was dominant source of larvae for Raja Muda reef. Results also indicated that patches reefs near Raja Muda was ideal sink site for coral larvae and should be prioritized for future ecosystem management action.

Pages 13-18
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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gws.01.2020.09.12

ABSTRACT

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS FROM Azolla pinnata EXTRACTED USING SOXHLET AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID (SFE) METHODS

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Husna Sabrina Mahyuddin, Muhammad Ameerul Haqim Roshidi, Sahena Ferdosh, Abdul Latif Noh

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.09.12

The propagation, extraction, and antibacterial studies of Azolla pinnata were carried out in this study. The propagation involved two fertilizers, which were chicken manure and inorganic AB fertilizer. The dry yield was extracted using two methods, which were Soxhlet and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Methanolic extracts were obtained and subjected to several antibacterial tests, which include the disk diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests, against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that AB fertilizer produced more dry yield compared to chicken manure. The extract yield from Soxhlet exhibited a higher yield than that of SFE, recording its highest at 21.20%. The findings of antibacterial tests revealed that all extracts inhibited the growth of B. subtilis and S. aureus, but none showed inhibition against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The largest diameter of inhibition zone of 2.67 ± 1.53 mm was obtained by E2 (CM-SFE), with a MIC value of 0.125 mg/mL against B. subtilis. High MBC values further confirm that the mechanism of inhibition against B. subtilis and S. aureus were due to the bacteriostatic properties of the extracts tested.

Pages 09-12
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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gws.01.2020.06.08

ABSTRACT

CALLUS INDUCTION FROM LEAF EXPLANT OF FICUS DELTOIDEA VARKUNSTLERI

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Hafizuddin Sa’adan, Zarina Zainuddin

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.06.08

Ficus deltoidea or commonly known as ‘mas cotek’ is a herbal plant indigenous to Southeast Asia including Malaysia and Indonesia. This plant is popular for its medicinal values such as improve blood circulation, regain energy and enhance fertility naturally for both men and women. The main objective of this study is to develop in vitro clonal propagation method for rapid production of F. deltoidea using different concentrations of benzyl aminopurine (BAP) through shoot induction and multiplication, rooting and subsequent establishment in soil following acclimatization. Surface sterilization of the leaf explants was done using mercury chloride and ethanol as the disinfectants. Pre-treatment of the explants with carbendazim successfully reduced the occurrence of fungal contamination. At the end of the experiment, no shoot and root induction were observed but calli were successfully induced on MS medium containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg/l BAP, with calli induced from 3.0 mg/l BAP were bigger and healthier. In short, the higher the concentration of BAP used, the higher tendency for the explant to induce callus.

Pages 06-08
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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