Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)

Drag reduction for a fast back passenger car (logan)

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gws.02.2017.19.22

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Drag reduction for a fast back passenger car (logan)

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Suliman Mohammed Mohammed Ali, Jalal Mohammed Zayan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2017.19.22

The car manufacturers all over the globe are intensively competing among each other in terms of the design and fuel consumption factor. Nowadays the reduction of drag is becoming a very important challenge for all the car manufacturers as they are producing powerful cars with better fuel consumption in the market regulated with law reinforcement on fuel emissions and consumers. Lower drag provides better performances such as higher top speed and better stability. It also often lowers aerodynamic noise and greenhouse gas emission above all decreases in fuel consumption. However, modern designs of cars tend to go higher and wider and thus they have higher frontal areas due to the functional, economic and aesthetic requirements. Increasing frontal area of the vehicle tend to increase the drag force acting on the vehicle which is proportional to the dimensionless drag coefficient and the projected area of the vehicle. Consequently, to hold or even decrease the drag on a car that has a larger frontal area, tremendous effort has to be made. In this research both experimental and numerical analysis have been done to an existing model of a car with some various aerodynamic add-on devices that can be attached to car and reduce aerodynamic drag of the vehicle without comprising on its main design features.

Pages 19-22
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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gws.02.2017.16.18

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Cytotoxicity on mcf7 cell lines exposed to an extract of the jacalin from jackfruit seed

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: M. A Zuraidah, B. Akbar John, Y. Kamaruzzaman

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2017.16.18

Jacalin is a major lectin present in jackfruit seeds, obtained by crude protein recovery. Its lectin symbol is AIL and it belongs to the galactose family of N-acetylglucosamine binding lectins, which are recognized to be cancer cell inhibitor. There have been many pharmacological research studies focusing intensively on jacalin, however their scope was restricted to the application of jacalin in pharmacology. Jacalin or lectin extract from jackfruit seed were induced cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cell, MCF7, in comparison of crude extract, purified jacalin and jacalin standard. IC50 for MCF7 was achieved at concentration 125 µg/mL, comparable to jacalin standard with only 1.60 % contradictions.

Pages 16-18
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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gws.02.2017.11.15

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Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria isolated from petroleum contaminated sites with the potential to be used in bioremediation

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Noor Shaidatul Lyana Mohamad Zainal, Suhaila Mohd Omar, Mardiana Mohd Ashaari

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2017.11.15

Surfactants have been widely used to facilitate biodegradation of petroleum pollutant; particularly those are being produced by microorganisms which are also known as biosurfactant. Six bacterial isolates from petroleum contaminated sites were found to be potential hydrocarbon degrader candidates based on their ability to grow on minimal media supplemented with petroleum crude oil as sole carbon source. In addition, they also found to be having potential in producing extracellular biosurfactant based on the results of screening for biosurfactant activity. These isolates were further identified and characterized. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of these isolates have been examined and molecular identification was done by amplifying 16S rRNA gene. Three isolates were identified as the member of the genus Pseudomonas; another two isolates were the member of genus Comamonas and one isolate from the genus Stenotrophomonas. Several qualitative screening methods (microplate assay, oil displacement test, emulsification assay and drop-collapse test) showed variation of results; suggesting the need to support these findings with quantitative screening based on measurement of surface activity. BSP 6 which was found to be closely related to Comamonas aquatica was the most promising biosurfactant producer found in this study based on two positive results out of four qualitative screening methods performed.

Pages 11-15
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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gws.02.2017.07.10

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Pcb biodegration using bacteria isolated from landfill leachate

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Noor Faizul Hadry Nordin, Siti Nur Nadiah Binti Mohd Idris, Mohd Nazri Mohd Nawi, Akbar John, Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2017.07.10

Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs are toxic, persistent organic pollutants (POP) which are harmful to human and environment due to their lipophilic characteristic and not easily degraded in the environment. Biodegradation is one of the alternative ways to reduce PCBs contamination. This study intended to isolate bacteria from landfill leachate using enrichment culture technique and optimize the growth condition of selected isolates for degradation of PCBs. PCB biodegradation efficiency by selected bacterial isolates was also determined using GC-MS. Three potential PCBs degraders were isolated from the samples of landfill leachate through enrichment culture technique, which utilised PCBs as sole carbon and energy sources but only isolate T12B shown significant effect on the degradation. Three different growth parameters were optimized involving the temperature, pH, and PCBs concentration. Central composite design (CCD) from Design Expert Software was used to design the experiment. The optimal growth condition of temperature at 37˚C with 10 ppm of PCB concentrations and pH 8 for the culture medium was achieved using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) analysis. Based on GC-MS analysis, the reduction of PCBs concentration indicates that they were utilized by isolates T12B as sole of carbon and energy sources. This may suggest that bacteria in landfill leachate play an important role in biodegradation process as well as more effective and economical.

Pages 07-10
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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gws.02.2017.01.06

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High quality dna from peat soil for metagenomic studies a minireview on dna extraction methods

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Muhamad Aidilfitri Mohamad Roslan, Mohd Azrul Naim Mohamad, Suhaila Mohd Omar

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2017.01.06

The understanding of microorganism’s biodiversity in the peatland soil through non-cultivation based approach provide important inputs towards prediction of the ecosystem response towards the changing environment. The challenge that hindered the success to obtain high quality DNA from peat soil lies in the physicochemical characteristics such as low pH and high humic acid content. There are two general approaches that have been extensively applied for soil microbial DNA extraction, which are direct DNA extraction protocol and indirect DNA extraction protocol. The only step differentiate between these two protocols is the later includes additional cell separation method from soil micro-aggregates preceding DNA extraction process. Therefore, several improved and modified methods in conventional DNA extraction and purification methods are reviewed in this paper to cater all the highlighted issues as to obtain high-quality DNA for peatland metagenomics soil studies.

Pages 01-06
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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gws.01.2017.23.25

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Total Phenolic Content And Total Flavonoid Content In Moringa Oleifera Seed

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Faridah Ghafar, Tengku Nur Nadzirah Tengku Nazrin, Marmy Roshaidah Mohd Salleh, Norulakmal Nor Hadi, Nazerah Ahmad, Ahmad Azahari Hamzah, Zainal Abidin Mohd Yusof, Intan Nurjahan Azman

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2017.23.25

Moringa oleifera is one of the most popular plants in South Asian. It is known as miracle tree because of every parts of the plant including roots, leaves, pods flowers, and seeds containing high nutritional value and medicinal benefits. M. oleifera seed’s oil extracted contains high antioxidants properties and become as a valuable sources of protein, vitamins, beta carotene, amino acids, and various phenolic compounds. Extraction of oil and determination of antioxidants in the oil could give a great potential for commercialization especially in pharmaceutical industries due to its pharmacological properties such as antiflammatory, antihypertensive, antiepileptic, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal. The aim of this study were to extract the M. oleifera seeds at different extraction time and ratio of seed to solvent and determine the amount of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in the methanol extract. The extraction process was carried out using Soxhlet extraction with methanol as a solvent for different ratio of seed to solvent (1:10, 1:5 and 3:10) and extraction time (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours). The highest extraction yield was found at 36.84% for the seed to solvent ratio (1:10) with the extraction time of 5 hours. The highest percentages of TPC were 2027.07 (mg GAE/g of extract) at 3 hours of extraction time and seed to solvent ratio (1:10). However, the TFC values in M. oleifera seeds were 99.72 (mg QE/g of extract weight) at 5 hours of extraction time and seed to solvent ratio (1:10). The high values of TPC and TFC in methanol extract of M. oleifera seed showing it a good source of natural antioxidant and have a great potential for commercialization in food products and pharmaceutical industries.

Pages 23-25
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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gws.01.2017.20.22

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Tight Repression Of Elastase Strain K Overexpression By Pt7 (A1/O4/O3) Shuttle Expression System

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Nurul Hazwani Shamsudin, Chee Fah Wong, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd. Rahman and Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2017.20.22

The PT7(A1/O4/O3) is a promoter resulted from construction of O3 and O4 operators into PA1, a promoter derived from coliphage T7, that evidenced lower the occupancy of the promoter by RNA polymerase and thereby increases the repression factor. A new expression system, pTEL, was successfully constructed via shuttle vector pUCP19 as the backbone as the former carries pre-existing stabilizing fragment (SF) that enables replication of the plasmid in both E. coli and Pseudomonas sp. The leaky lac operon-based promoter found in pUCP19 was subsequently replaced by the PT7 (A1/O4/O3). Meanwhile, structural gene of the organic solvent tolerant elastase strain K was used as DNA insert (passenger enzyme) for repression and overexpression studies. The success of pTEL was evidenced by detection of non-significant protein expression level in the absence of IPTG as the inducer, indicating tight regulation possessed by the modified promoter. The addition of IPTG, however, relieved repression and demonstrated overexpression of the elastase strain K in various strains of E. coli following several optimization studies.

Pages 20-22
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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gws.01.2017.16.19

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Salicylic Acid Mitigates Pb Stress In Nicotiana Tabacum

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Nurul Izzah Abdul Halim, Ing Chia Phang

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2017.16.19

The exposure of plants to Pb stress increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including O2–, H2O2 and ¯OH. ROS are highly reactive substances that capable of altering normal cellular metabolism via oxidative damage to membranes, proteins, and nucleic acids. Compound involves in the detoxification of Pb stress is important to reduce the toxic effect of Pb. Stress signaling compounds like salicylic acid (SA) is one of the plant defense mechanisms to mitigate Pb toxicity. This study aimed to observe the effect of SA on the morpho-physiology, accumulation of Pb content and the production of O2– and H2O2 of N. tabacum grown under Pb stress. N. tabacum was propagated and treated with SA and Pb treatments. Then, the morpho-physiology of N. tabacum was observed and measured, histochemical staining of diaminobenzidine (DAB) and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were conducted to assesses the effect of SA on the accumulation of O2– and H2O2, and Pb content in Pb-treated N. tabacum. The finding of this study showed the application of SA improved growth parameters, diminished the accumulation of oxidative stress as well as reduced Pb content. SA might detoxify Pb, thus alleviate Pb toxicity.

Pages 16-19
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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gws.01.2017.13.15

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Red Pigment Production By Monascus Purpureus In Stirred-Drum Bioreactor

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Mohamad Al Aamin Razali, Farhan M. Said

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2017.13.15

Several studies has been conducted to economically cultivate the Monascus sp. However, the potential of using stirred drum bioreactor in solid state fermentation (SSF) for Monascus sp. cultivation has been relatively understudied. Oil palm frond (OPF) petiole has been used as a potential substrate due to its nutritional contents and to add more value to local agricultural waste. This study reports the production of red pigment by Monascus purpureus FTC 5357 in a 2.3 L bench top – stirred-drum bioreactor. The fungus was grown on moistened OPF substrate (60 % (w/w)) supplemented with 2% (w/w) of soy meal peptone. The effects of different aeration rates (0.3-1.0 vvm of humidified air), agitation programme (4-8 cycles per day), and substrate load capacity (25-40 % (v/v) of total drum capacity) on red pigment production are reported. Aeration rate showed a positively correlated interaction to red pigment production in which the highest red pigment were produced using1.0 vvm (6.09 AU/g dry solid), and non-aerated culture showed the lowest red pigment production (0.81 AU/g dry solid). The agitation programme was also showing the positive trend of interaction, in which 8 cycles per day showed the highest red pigment production (4.34 AU/g dry solid) and 4 cycles per day agitation showed the lowest red pigment production. The red pigment production was peaked at 30% (v/v) drum loading capacity (5.61 AU/g dry solid) and the lowest at 25% (v/v) (0.89 AU/g dry solid), whereas 40% (v/v) substrate capacity was incapable of being mixed due to low power output of agitating motor. Results suggested that OPF was a potent source of substrate for the cultivating Monascus purpureus using SSF and all 3 factors (aeration, substrate load capacity and agitation programme) were significantly influenced the red pigment production.

Pages 13-15
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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gws.01.2017.10.12

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Lactic Acid Bacteria With Antimicrobial Properties Isolated From The Intestines Of Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Amni Nadhirah Abdullah Pirus, Azzmer Azzar Abdul Hamid, Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2017.10.12

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) confer many advantages to humans and animals and they provide natural protection against bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella typhymurium and Eschericia coli. LAB strains have been isolated from various animal sources but from this research LAB were isolated from quail’s (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) intestine. About 12 strains were isolated from the quail’s intestine; and out of these, 5 samples (S1-1B, S2-1A, S2-1B, S2-2B and S3-1A) produced lactose on lactose test. All of these strains appeared to be non-motile coccus with gram positive morphology, catalase-negative and oxidase-negative. These strains showed antimicrobial activities (inhibition zones) against indicator bacterium, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium using agar well methods. PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA revealed that these five isolates show highest sequence similarity with other LAB strains isolated from other animals which include common genera such as Enterococcus and Lactobacillus. Strain S1-1B, S2-1B and S2-2B were highly similar with Enterococcus faecium, strain S3-2B with Enterococcus durans and S2-1A with Lactobacillus salivarius. This work shows that common LAB species were isolated from intestinal tissues of Malaysian quail (Coturnix Japonica) which were able to produce antimicrobial activities against pathogenic strains.

Pages 10-12
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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