Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)

TAXONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ANTICLINAL WALLS AND STOMATA PATTERNING IN SOME MELASTOMA L. SPECIES FROM FRASER HILL

Author archives:

gws.01.2020.24.26

ABSTRACT

TAXONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ANTICLINAL WALLS AND STOMATA PATTERNING IN SOME MELASTOMA L. SPECIES FROM FRASER HILL

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Siti-Maisarah, Z., Nurul-Aini, C.A.C., Rozilawati, S., Noor-Syaheera, M. Y.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.24.26

The epidermal characteristics of five selected Melastoma L. species in Fraser Hill, Pahang that belongs to Melastomataceae family had been investigated. These five species namely M. muticum Ridl., M. decemfidum Roxb., M. perakense Ridl., M. sanguineum x malabathricum and M. malabathricum var. normale. The objective of this study is to determine whether epidermal characteristics in Melastoma could be taxonomic value in systematic and diagnostic investigations. Methods of the investigation involved epidermal peel and scanning electron microscopy. Results obtained revealed that the presence of hypostomatic stomata and guard cells pairs were elliptic in shaped for all species studied. Apart, the pattern of anticlinal walls on adaxial and abaxial surfaces was straight to wavy for all species studied except for wavy to sinuous anticlinal walls on abaxial surface of M. sanguineum x malabathricum. Furthermore, two types of stomata were observed among species studied such as anomocytic and diacytic stomata. Results showed that diacytic type was only present in M. sanguineum x malabathricum therefore could be a criterion to diagnose the species. Lastly, this present study was also reported on the presence of two types of guard cell pairs such as raised or slightly raised and sunken guard cell pairs. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the anticlinal walls and stomata patterning possess as taxonomic importance in identification and classification of Melastoma either at genus or species level.

Pages 24-26
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

gws.01.2020.19.23

ABSTRACT

MITIGATION OF ALEXANDRIUM TAMIYAVANICHII USING ACTIVE FRACTIONS FROM ETHANOL EXTRACT OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT, SANSEVIERIA TRIFASCIATA

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Normawaty Mohammd-Noor, Ima Amirah Mohd Suberi, Deny Susanti, Yukinori Mukai, Anwar Iqbal, Aimimuliani Adam

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.19.23

Blooms of toxic Alexandrium tamiyavnichii have been recorded in several parts of the world including Malaysia. This Harmful algal bloom (HAB) has led to human illness and loss to fishery industries. In order to control the bloom and minimize the effects, the growth of the species needs to be inhibited using a mitigation agent, preferably environment friendly agent. In this study, an ornamental plant, Sansevieria trifasciata will be used to inhibit the growth of A. tamiyavanichii. The plants were fractionated to obtain fractions (dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol) from ethanol fresh and dried plants extracts. Eight concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/mL) of these fractions were tested on the algae for 24 hours and removal efficiencies (RE) were determined. Toxicity test was conducted on Artemia using 10, 50, 100 and 500 mg/mL concentrations of active fractions for 24 hours. Phytochemical compounds were detected using standard procedures. Results obtained showed that the growth of A. tamiyavanichii was inhibited by all concentration tested. Active fractions from DCM using both fresh and dried plants showed good results with more that 80% RE values at 5 mg/mL within 2.5 to 5 hours. During the experiments, DCM used did not change the pH of the culture medium compared to methanol fraction. For phytochemical screening tests, compounds detected in all fractions were alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, reducing sugars and terpenoids. These compounds might cause the inhibition of targeted algae, however further study is needed to determine the bioactivity and its specific effect on HAB species. To conclude, fractions of DCM from fresh and dried S. trifasciata have the potential in the mitigation of A. tamiyavanichii. This could help to minimize the impact of this species on human health and reduce the loss to fishery industries.

Pages 19-23
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

gws.01.2020.13.18

ABSTRACT

DISPERSAL PATTERN OF CORAL LARVAE IN KUANTAN COASTAL WATERS, MALAYSIA

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Muhammad Faiz Mohd Hanapiah, Shahbudin Saad, Zuhairi Ahmad

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.13.18

Understanding source and sink pattern of coral larvae is among the key elements for effective ecosystem management and future habitat restoration. This study examined dispersal pattern of coral larvae among three known inshore reefs (Pulau Ular, Balok Reef and Raja Muda reef) in Kuantan coastal waters by simulating virtual larvae trajectories during spawning event in 2018. Dispersal pathways were modelled and constructed by incorporating biological traits (timing of spawning and pelagic larvae duration) using Langragian particle tracking module integrated with 2-dimensional, hydrodynamic, flexible network model (MIKE 21 FM). Results indicated that Acroporid larvae moved in southward direction throughout dispersal period. Source and sink dynamic suggested that Pulau Ular has high larvae retention (70%) in which most of larvae originated from natal reef. Balok reef was dominant source of larvae for Raja Muda reef. Results also indicated that patches reefs near Raja Muda was ideal sink site for coral larvae and should be prioritized for future ecosystem management action.

Pages 13-18
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

gws.01.2020.09.12

ABSTRACT

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS FROM Azolla pinnata EXTRACTED USING SOXHLET AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID (SFE) METHODS

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Husna Sabrina Mahyuddin, Muhammad Ameerul Haqim Roshidi, Sahena Ferdosh, Abdul Latif Noh

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.09.12

The propagation, extraction, and antibacterial studies of Azolla pinnata were carried out in this study. The propagation involved two fertilizers, which were chicken manure and inorganic AB fertilizer. The dry yield was extracted using two methods, which were Soxhlet and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Methanolic extracts were obtained and subjected to several antibacterial tests, which include the disk diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests, against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that AB fertilizer produced more dry yield compared to chicken manure. The extract yield from Soxhlet exhibited a higher yield than that of SFE, recording its highest at 21.20%. The findings of antibacterial tests revealed that all extracts inhibited the growth of B. subtilis and S. aureus, but none showed inhibition against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The largest diameter of inhibition zone of 2.67 ± 1.53 mm was obtained by E2 (CM-SFE), with a MIC value of 0.125 mg/mL against B. subtilis. High MBC values further confirm that the mechanism of inhibition against B. subtilis and S. aureus were due to the bacteriostatic properties of the extracts tested.

Pages 09-12
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

gws.01.2020.06.08

ABSTRACT

CALLUS INDUCTION FROM LEAF EXPLANT OF FICUS DELTOIDEA VARKUNSTLERI

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Hafizuddin Sa’adan, Zarina Zainuddin

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.06.08

Ficus deltoidea or commonly known as ‘mas cotek’ is a herbal plant indigenous to Southeast Asia including Malaysia and Indonesia. This plant is popular for its medicinal values such as improve blood circulation, regain energy and enhance fertility naturally for both men and women. The main objective of this study is to develop in vitro clonal propagation method for rapid production of F. deltoidea using different concentrations of benzyl aminopurine (BAP) through shoot induction and multiplication, rooting and subsequent establishment in soil following acclimatization. Surface sterilization of the leaf explants was done using mercury chloride and ethanol as the disinfectants. Pre-treatment of the explants with carbendazim successfully reduced the occurrence of fungal contamination. At the end of the experiment, no shoot and root induction were observed but calli were successfully induced on MS medium containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg/l BAP, with calli induced from 3.0 mg/l BAP were bigger and healthier. In short, the higher the concentration of BAP used, the higher tendency for the explant to induce callus.

Pages 06-08
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

gws.02.2019.22.25

ABSTRACT

LEAF ANATOMY AND MICROMORPHOLOGY OF SELECTED PLANT SPECIES IN COASTAL AREA OF KUANTAN, PAHANG, MALAYSIA

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Che Nurul Aini Binti Che Amri, Nurul Atiqah Binti Mohammad Mokhtar, Rozilawati Shahari

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2019.22.25

Plant anatomy can play vital role in plant taxonomy for successfully resolve taxonomic problems among different plant species. The anatomical studies of plant species living in coastal area of Kuantan, Pahang are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the common, variation and diagnostic characteristics of leaf anatomy and micromorphology of selected plant species collected from Balok and Sepat beach area which can give additional information for identification of species. Four species studied namely Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br., Calophyllum inophyllum L., Hibiscus tiliaceus L. and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. Methods used were sectioning using sliding microtome, epidermal peeling and leaf micromorphology method using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The findings from this study showed that only three characteristics are similar among them which include the presence of collenchyma, sclerenchyma and mucilage cells or canals in either petiole or midrib of the leaves. Meanwhile, there are eight differences were observed which are types of stomata and trichomes, pattern of anticlinal wall and vascular bundles, type of epicuticular wax structures, cuticle ornamentations, size of epidermal cells and the presence of cell inclusions. The diagnostic characteristics identified in this study are closed-system of vascular bundle, presence of multicellular capitate glandular, 2-4 armed trichomes and 5-8 armed stellate trichomes and also flakes type of wax layers that can only be found in H. tiliaceus while 1:1 ratio size of epidermal cells can only be found in I. pes-caprae. The study reveals that leaf anatomy and micromorphology characteristics could be beneficial as an additional data for identification of species along the coastal area of Kuantan, Pahang.

Pages 22-25
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

Download

Posted by din

gws.02.2019.18.21

ABSTRACT

INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT), SECURITY ISSUES AND ITS SOLUTIONS

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Fahad Azam, Rashid Munir, Mehboob Ahmed, M. Ayub, Ahthasham Sajid, Zaheer Abbasi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2019.18.21

Internet of things (IoT) plays a great role in the 21st century than a couple of years ago. Internet of things (IoT) provides us a technologically and optimistic image of the future where several computing objects are linked to the internet and they can recognize themselves with additional computing strategies. In this paper detail review of security issues over different layers of IoT has been covered. This paper also discusses the solutions possible to overcome those security issues. In this paper the brief discussion on security threats and how to measure it respectively to protect information or confidential information of the users IoT accentuations on controlling different assignments and attempt to approve the physical things to act denied of any obstruction of the human. The up and coming and existing IoT introductions are much guaranteed to expand the solace level, effectiveness, and robotization of the clients. The objects can represent digitally because IoT is very significant.

Pages 18-21
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

Download

Posted by din

gws.02.2019.06.09

ABSTRACT

DIAGNOSTIC AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIAL STATE FROM THE FIRST JEWS` ADOBE RANCH IN ALGARROBOS, CARLOS CASARES, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Paula V. Alfieri, Silvia Zicarelli, Graciela Molinari, Fabian Iloro, Luis P. Traversa

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2019.06.09

In Buenos Aires, Argentina there are many architectonic heritage objects that represent the history of the population of different places with different degree of deterioration and conservation, so their study and survey were necessary to avoid the complete loss of it. During the study of heritage assets in towns, villages, and cities of Buenos Aires that the LEMIT makes more than 20 years ago, numerous architectonic heritage assets were found with different degree of deterioration and conservation. As result of some surveys, important restoration and conservation interventions were done preserving province heritage. Thus, the aim of this paper was the study of the materials deterioration state from the first ranch built by the settlement of the Jewish settlers in 1891, in Algarrobos city, Carlos Casares, Buenos Aires. This ranch was the first houses of Jews when they arrived from Russia. The material analysis here presented allowed to recognize its state of deterioration and conservation through discerning if these materials were from the mentioned age and consequently, providing fundamental information to know part of settlement history formation. On the other hand, its study allowed generating a plan of interventions and conservation in short – and medium- term.

Pages 06-09
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

Download

Posted by din

gws.02.2019.01.05

ABSTRACT

MAPPING MANGROVE DEGRADATION IN PAHANG RIVER ESTUARY, PEKAN PAHANG BY USING REMOTE SENSING

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Zuhairi, A, Zaleha, K, Nur Suhaila, MR, Muhammad Shaheed, S

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2019.01.05

This study examined the mangrove degradation in Pahang River Estuary, Pekan sub-district, Pahang between 1990 and 2017 using supervised classification. Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 5 TM images of Pahang River Estuary have been analyzed using supervised classification and field survey. Based on the accuracy assessment, the confusion matrix for supervised classifications ranged from 77% to 81%. Kappa coefficient (K) for supervised classification ranged between the value of 0.67 and 0.72. The total mangrove covers in 2017 was 1,535.40 ha, decreased by 43.7% or 670.80 ha from its total area of 2,206.20 ha in 1990. The expansion of development area was observed in the past 27 years. Several other causes of mangrove degradation were identified during field survey, including sand mining activities along riverbank, mangrove clearing for aquaculture and agriculture. The rapid development within the coastal area and estuary had suppressed the mangroves propagation over the years. Long term monitoring of mangrove distribution is crucial to ensure the sustainability of the mangrove ecosystem.

Pages 01-05
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

Download

Posted by din

gws.01.2019.24.31

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH ON ARBITRARY VIRTUAL VIEW IMAGE SYNTHESIS METHOD OF TWO VIEWS

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Sheng Nan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2019.24.31

This paper proposes an improved virtual view image synthesis algorithm to overcome the drawbacks of conventional virtual view synthesis technologies in dealing with holes and artifacts. First, conduct edge detection and preparation operation on obtained depth images to reduce the holes caused by the step change of pixel value; second, use the Euclidean distance between pixels and the depth information of image to roughly integrate images; finally, conduct morphological swelling treatment on the obtained virtual images to fill the rest holes and remove artifacts. According to results of simulation experiment, the improved algorithm outperforms those applied in other papers in filling holes and removing artifacts in in the course of virtual view image synthesis.

Pages 24-31
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

Download

Posted by din