Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)

PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM MYRISTICA DACTYLOIDES GAERTN

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gws.02.2020.74.75

ABSTRACT

PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM MYRISTICA DACTYLOIDES GAERTN

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Saravanan Vivekanandarajah Sathasivampillai, Pholtan Rajeev Sebastian Rajamanoharan, Sujarajini Varatharasan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.74.75

Myristica dactyloides Gaertn. is an endemic plant species to Sri Lanka and it belongs to Myristicaceae family. M. dactyloides is a medicinal plant that is used to treat various illnesses in traditional medicine in Sri Lanka. There is no review published for M. dactyloides. Thus, this works aims summarize and present a comprehensive review including the phytochemistry of this plant species. This work would provide a foundation for further studying the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of M. dactyloides. Web of Science (an electronic database) was utilized to identify relevant published work. A sum of 21 compounds have been found in various parts of M. dactyloides belong to classes like arylalkanone and lignan. More compounds were identified from stem bark. Compounds including Malabaricone A have been identified in both seed and stem bark. On the other hand, this is no scientific evidence available for any pharmacological activity study for ethnomedical uses. This work provides a basis for further studying the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of this plant.

Pages 74-75
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.01.2020.43.45

ABSTRACT

MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) PRODUCTION UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION TREATMENTS: INVESTIGATING THE GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Rana Shahzad Noor, Fiaz Hussain, Abu Saad, Muhammad Umair

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.43.45

Maize (Zea mays) is one of Pakistan’s most important cereal crops and is widely used both for human consumption and for livestock feed. Seed germination, its morphological growth and yield depends on irrigation sequence. Rainfall is the only source of irrigation in Potohar region, Rawalpindi which mainly restrained sustainable agricultural practices. Therefore, a study was planned to investigate the effect of different irrigation frequencies (1-day, 3-days and 5-days interval) on germination and early growth of maize at Koont research station, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during 2019 and 2020 crop seasons. The results elucidated that the continuous application of enough moisture via irrigation in 3-day interval enhance relatively higher (50%) percentage of germination followed by one day interval (43.75%). The enough moisture at five-day interval enhanced germination performance (68.75%). No significance effect was found on number of maize seedlings emergence while a considerable variation was observed on their emergence date, that the early emergence of maize seeds was enhanced in 1-day interval. As irrigation frequency decreased from 1 to 5 days interval, seedling emergence was delayed significantly (p<0.05). This indicated that a continuous application of enough water to the soil and maintaining soil moisture enhance the emergence of maize seeds to be takes placed earlier.

Pages 43-45
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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gws.01.2020.35.42

ABSTRACT

EFFICACY OF VARIOUS INSECTICIDES AGAINST MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF SUMMER SQUASH (Cucurbita pepo) IN DHADING DISTRICT, NEPAL

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Sapana Parajuli, Bhimsen Shrestha, Puspa Raj Dulal, Bina Sapkota, Samikshya Gautam and Srijana Pandey

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.35.42

Red pumpkin beetle, fruit fly, flea beetle, whitefly, squash bug, melon aphid, etc. are the major insect pests of summer squash resulting in a huge loss in quality and quantity to farmers A field trial was conducted to find out the comparative efficacy of various insecticides against the major insect pests of summer squash from January to June 2020 in Dhading district, Nepal. The experiment was laid in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four different insecticides i.e. Imidachloropid 17.8 SL @1.5ml/l, Spinosad 45SC @1ml/L, Azadiractin (Nimbecidine) 500ppm @ 5 ml/L, Jholmol @ 1:5 concentrations, and normal water spray as control as five treatments. The treatments were replicated four times and ‘Anna 303’ variety of summer squash was used under study. The results revealed that, among all the insecticides evaluated at all the four sprays, Imidachloropid recorded the maximum reduction in the population of red pumpkin beetle (RPB) (about 90%), other insects (about 88%) and also showed minimum leaf infestation % (28.5%), and leaf damage % per plant (15.63%) and Spinosad being at par with Imidachloropid followed by Azadirachtin and Jholmol respectively. Imidachloropid and Spinosad also showed comparatively lower fruit infestation by fruit fly i.e. 18.5% and 20.5 % respectively than other insecticides. Both Imidachloropid and Spinosad treated plots were statistically (p<0.05) similar and significantly superior over other treatments for yield (52.11 and 50.31Mt ha-1 respectively), for fruit length (37.62 and 37.12cm respectively) and fruit diameter (26.78 and 26.51cm respectively). A negative and strong correlation was found between yield and mean population of RPB and other insects, leaf infestation % per plant, leaf damage % per plant, and fruit infestation % per plant whereas fruit length and diameter showed a positive correlation with yield. The benefit-cost ratio was highest for plot treated with Imidachloropid (4.21) followed by Spinosad, Azadiractin, Jholmol, and Control. Thus, Imidachloropid was the most effective and economic in controlling the major insect pests of summer squash.

Pages 35-42
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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gws.01.2020.27.30

ABSTRACT

MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC APPROACHES FOR PLANT PATHOGENS DETECTION AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Manoj Paudel, Kiran Parajuli, Sovit Parajuli, Sudip Regmi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.01.2020.27.30

Every year huge crop losses occur due to different pathogens and disease. The traditional method of pathogen detection, which is still in practice, through visual examination is not always precise. Early detection of plant pathogens prior to severe infection is very crucial which is possible through molecular diagnostic approaches and nucleic acid-based tests. As the genetic materials are the ultimate information storage sites in living organism, their exploration through the use of nanotechnology provides the path forward for the three Ds of genomic analysis of pathogens: Diversity, Detection, and Disease diagnosis. Molecular detection method is not only precise and accurate but also faster and easier approach. Pathogen detection through PCR based tests, microarray technology, multiplexing, gene sequencing, genetic markers play a pivotal role in timely detection of causatives and take proper action to prevent the pandemic in plant population and safeguard against possible risks and famine. It is of utmost importance to prioritize such methods to detect plant pathogens, to increase our understanding of ecology and epidemiology and to prevent the spread of inoculum prior to disease spread. The application of novel diagnostic methods to inoculum detection will guide towards better understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of epidemic development, and open up new opportunities for disease forecasting and management.

Pages 27-30
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.70.73

ABSTRACT

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION BETWEEN HATCHERY AND WILD ANABAS TESTUDINEUS, BASED ON TRUSS NETWORK ANALYSIS

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Azfar, A.M., Siti-Waznah, A., Jalal, K,C.A.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.70.73

Several body measurement methods used to identify stock have recently been criticized because of inherent biases and weaknesses. As an alternative, a new system of morphometric measurement called the truss network has been increasingly used for stock identification. Therefore, the morphometric differentiations between wild and captive populations of Anabas testudineus were carried out throughout this study using a truss network. Truss measurements based on anchored at ten homologous landmarks with 19 distances of 120 specimens were measured. Discriminant analysis was performed to investigate distinctions and patterns of morphological variations between wild and captive populations of Anabas testudineus. The findings support the use of the truss network to study the morphological variation among populations as it provides interesting perspectives for the study of biodiversity patterns.

Pages 70-73
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.64.69

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND ONION (Allium cepa) EXTRACTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF FALL ARMYWORM (Spodoptera frugiperda) ON BABY CORN (Zea mays L) UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Munyore, M., Rioba, N. B.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.64.69

The effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa extracts on the Fall Armyworm and growth of Babycorn (Variety SG 18) under greenhouse conditions were evaluated. Treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The factors included solvents used: Dichroloromethane (DCM), Methanol (Me), Distilled water (Di) and type of plant used: Allium sativum and Allium cepa. The positive and negative controls were Coragen SC 200 (Co) and distilled water (Di), respectively. Data collection and analysis was done using appropriate procedures. The extraction yield was highest with Methanol for A cepa and distilled water for A sativum, while DCM yielded the least for both plants. Saponins, glycosides, alkaloid and tannins were present in all the plant species, but their presence was influenced by the solvent type. Flavoniods were only present in DCM-A sativum extract whose content was 5.2378 ± 0.1094 mg/mL. DCM and Methanolic extracts of A cepa and A sativum were as effective as Coragen SC 200 against FAW larvae as opposed to distilled water extract. No significant differences were noted for plant height and leaf numbers. Further evaluation should be done towards making commercially available and effective insecticide for integrated FAW management.

Pages 64-69
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.59.63

ABSTRACT

LAND USE CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING USING LANDSAT IMAGERY FOR GIS DATABASE IN LANGKAWI ISLAND

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Zuhairi, A., Nur Syahira Azlyn, A., Nur Suhaila, M. R., Mohd Zaini, M.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.59.63

This study examined the land use changes in Langkawi Island for over 12 years. Land use maps were derived by analysing temporally available satellite imageries of that area. Subsequent Landsat imageries of the years 2006, 2014 and 2018 were processed in Environment for Visualising Images (ENVI) software using Normalize Differences Built-Up Index (NDBI) and supervised classification. The land use classes obtained were categorised according to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) land use classification namely URLD, URMD, URHD, FRSE, UINS, UIDU, URTN, RICE, AGRR, and WATR. The analysis of the land use maps provides a comparison for the area of land use class around Langkawi Island based on the Rancangan Kawasan Khas 2020 (RKK). This study will give an overview of the stakeholder on the current land use of Langkawi Island for future land use planning. Moreover, the land use map generated in this study can be used as a functional land use input for the SWAT model and provide a temporal Geographic Information System (GIS) database on the land use of the Langkawi Island.

Pages 59-63
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.56.58

ABSTRACT

A PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF Ficus L. SPECIES IN KUANTAN, PAHANG

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Badrol Azim Moulana, Rozilawati Shahari, Che Nurul Aini Che Amri, Muhd Syufihuddin Shamsuddin, Nik Nadira Nazua Nik Rusmadi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.56.58

Ficus is the largest genus in the Moraceae family, with more than 700 species worldwide. It was classified into a distinct genus based on the unique nature of its inflorescence. Until recently, there was no official record of the Ficus checklist in Kuantan, Pahang. Therefore, this study aims to develop the preliminary checklist of Ficus species in Kuantan Pahang. Plant samples were collected from selected areas of Kuantan. Plant samples were pressed, dried and mounted on a herbarium board and processed as specimen vouchers. Based on this study, 14 species of Ficus were recorded. The list of Ficus presented in this study could be used for future research and as a reference source for conservation activities.

Pages 56-58
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.51.55

ABSTRACT

BROADCAST SPAWNING PATTERN AND PELAGIC LARVAE DURATION OF ACROPORA CYTHEREA AND A. CLATHRATA FROM INSHORE REEF AREA IN KUANTAN COASTAL REGION

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Muhammad Faiz Mohd Hanapiah, Shahbudin Saad, Zuhairi Ahmad, Muhammad Hamizan Yusof, Mohd Fikri Akmal Khodzori, Muhammad Khairulanwar Rosli

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.51.55

Acropora sp. is the second-most abundant among the coral genera in the Kuantan coastal region (KCR) located on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This study investigated the timing of coral spawning of two Acropora species; Acropora cytherea and Acropora clathrata through dissection and histological analyses of coral fragments that were collected during predicted spawning months (March until May 2018) from Balok reef, Kuantan. Histological results showed the presence of mature oocytes from a sample collected in April and May 2018, which indicate an extended gamete release pattern for these species within KCR. The gamete maturity coincided with the peak sea surface temperature within KCR from April until May. Both Acropora species spawned between 10-11 nights after the full moon. Present results also indicated that both Acropora species have optimal pelagic larvae duration (PLD) between 6 – 8 days after spawning. This study contributed to the limited knowledge of coral reproductive biology on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, the timing of coral spawning provides valuable data for population connectivity modelling.

Pages 51-55
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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gws.02.2020.46.50

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF VERMICULITE APPLICATION RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BRASSICA NAPUS (RAPE)

Journal: Science Heritage Journal | Galeri Warisan Sains (GWS)
Author: Pisa C, Parwada C, Chiripanyanga S, Dunjana N

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/gws.02.2020.46.50

Production of leaf vegetables requires intensive soil nutrients management. A 3-year field experiment was carried out to assess effects of vermiculite application rates on the growth and yield of Brassica napus. The experiment was conducted during the 2016/17, 2017/18 and 2018/19 summer seasons at the Marondera University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (MUAST) farm, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Vermiculite was applied at five levels of 0 (control), 1, 2, 5 and 10 t ha-1 in a completely randomised block design (RCBD) with 3 replicates. Basal and top-dressing fertilizers were applied using the recommended rates in the study area. The B. napus leaf width, leaf length, fresh and dry matter yield, leaf nutrient concentration and N and P uptake were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p = 0.05 was done to compare the effects of vermiculite application rates on growth and yield of B. napus. Growth parameters and yield of B. napus significantly (P <0.05) differed among the five levels of vermiculite. Application rates of 5 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 improved leaf width and length, fresh and dry matter yield of B. napus. Farmers may therefore apply 5 -10 t ha-1 of vermiculite in order to increase rape leaf yields. However, there is need for further researches to determine the optimum application rates of vermiculite are essential.

Pages 46-50
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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